Elshan Abdullayev has been in a scientific visit in Turkey and Great Britain
Researcher from the Institute of Geography named after acad. H. Aliyev Azerbaijan National Academy of Science Dr. ElshanAbdullayevhas been in a scientificvisit at the Department of Geological Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, MuğlaSıtkıKoçman University and Middle East Technical Universityfor a year since 05.06.2016 to conduct research on the topic of “The role of clays in revealing past climates and geological evolution of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea during Plio-Pleistocene”. During that period he also visited Durham University (England) for discussing the clay minerals composition of the Plio-Pleistocene sediment from the western Caspian Sea for12-25.03.2017.
Research was conducted under the supervision Assit. Prof. Dr. CerenKüçükuysal from Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Prof. Dr. Asuman Türkmenoğlu from Middle East Technical University, also Dr. Yelena Taghiyeva, head of the Division of Paleogeography of the Institute of Geography after acad. H. Aliyevof Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (ANAS). Research work was supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBITAK), by Azerbaijan Society of Petroleum Geologists, Institute of Geography after acad. H. Aliyev of ANAS, MuğlaSıtkıKoçman University and the visit to Durham University (England) was supported by Newton Foundation.
The goal and the results of the research: The aim of the research work was to investigate the fine-grained sediments of the Plio-Pleistocene in order to quantify the major clay mineral groups by the X-ray diffraction methods (XRD), morphology of the clay minerals by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and their chemistry composition of bulk sediment by X-ray fluorescence (XRF). In addition to the clay mineral study, palynology, micropaleontology analyses data which was provided by the Institute of Geography after acad. H. Aliyev, Institute of Geology and Geophysics of Azerbaijan National Academy of Science is used in the research in order to better understand palaeo-environmental condition. The contribution concentrates on the distribution of clay mineral assemblages in the Plio-Pleistocene sediments at the Black and Caspian Seas regions.The major statement of the problem is to reconstruct past climate and sea level which was at the stage of the Plio-Pleistocene time, when the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea was connected to each other.The main question is how many transgressions were during the Plio-Pleistocene times, their relation with salinity and what its main reason was tectonic and/or climatic.The clay mineral assemblages, non-clay mineral assemblages and major oxide can give information not only about climate history of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea regions during thePlio-Pleistocene time and also information about transgression and regression at that time and which is important for petroleum geology.100 samples were taken from the Plio-Pleistocene sediment in outcrops of the Caspian Sea region (Azerbaijan).
Application possibilities and significance of research results:Results showed that occurrence of variations in total clay mineral composition and the other non-clay minerals in the bulk compositions suggests two different climatic conditions on the Russian Platform at the different times. The low total clay is associated with high amount of calcite which indicates low water level of the Caspian Sea due to arid climate in the Russian Platform. The higher maxima in the total clay mineral and lower plagioclase, calcite and halite in the Early Akchagil stage (late Pliocene) suggest maximum humidity on the Russian Platform and a higher water level in the Caspian Basin.It may be corresponding to the largest Akchagyl transgression. Also maxima in halite may indicate influence of the Amu Darya river system. The Late Akchagyl is characterized by relatively high total clay and relatively low plagioclase which suggested mainly humid in the Russian Platform. However the relatively low total clay and relatively high plagioclase may suggest arid climate in the Russian Platform. Variations in the chemical index of alteration in the Akchagyl and Absheron Stages also suggest changes in the climate between humid and arid in the Russian Platform.The variations in the assemblage of ostracods and foraminifers also refer to the variations of the water level and salinity in the Caspian basin during deposition of the Akchagyl and Absheron sediments.